• 2019-07
  • 2019-08
  • 2019-09
  • 2019-10
  • 2019-11
  • 2020-03
  • 2020-07
  • 2020-08
  • 2021-03
  • br BIVA RXc z score analysis br The reference


    BIVA RXc z-score analysis
    The reference 50-07-7 of Piccoli et al. [24] was used as the chosen reference population for the authors of the Cardoso [34] and Nwosu studies. However, the seven populations described by Toso et al. [18,20] and Malecka-Massalska [21,31,35] [30,32] used control groups with sample sizes of n < 100 as a reference. We used the Piccoli data [24] as a reference population for these studies. Consequently, the Piccoli reference population was used as the reference for all studies in this paper.
    The RXc z-score analysis is presented in Fig. 4 and Table 2 (sup-plementary file). Five populations were normal (50% tolerance el-lipse). These were the male and female cohorts with various cancers (Nwosu et al., 2016 [22]), males with lung cancer in remission (Toso et al., 2003 [18]), males patients with stage III lung cancer (Toso et al., 2000 [20]) and females with gynaecological cancer (Cardoso et al., 2017 [34]). Comparatively greater cell mass was noted in females with newly diagnosed breast cancer [30] (the vector was superior to the 95% tolerance ellipse of the athletic quadrant). Four groups were
    Fig. 2. The BIVA RXc z-score graph: data drawn from the literature and plotted on the
    RXc z-score graph after transformation of the impedance measurements from several
    disease groups into bivariate z-scores (with respect to their reference population).
    Modified with permission [23]. Solid and open circles represent male and female,
    respectively. A forward or backward displacement of vectors parallel to the major axis
    of ellipses was associated with dehydration or fluid overloading, respectively, reaching
    extremes out of the poles. Single score vectors are from athletes [52], obese subjects of
    class I to III [53] or patients with chronic renal failure in conservative treatment,
    nephrotic syndrome (oedema), lung cancer [20], acquired immunodeficiency syn-
    vectors are from climbers before and after high altitude dehydration [56], Haemo-
    dialysis patients, either lean [57] or obese [53], before and after fluid removal with a
    dialysis session, and dehydrated patients with cholera before and after fluid infusion
    [12]. Vectors above or below the major axis (meaning upper left or lower right half of
    ellipses) were associated with more or less cell mass in soft tissues, respectively, with
    extremes along the minor axis. Abbreviations: CRF ¼ chronic renal failure;
    HD ¼ haemodialysis; HDo ¼ obese haemodialysis patients; HIV ¼ human immuno-
    deficiency virus stages 1e6; Ob/1e3 ¼ obese subjects of classes I to III; WR¼ Walter Fig. 3. Overall selection process for clinical studies included in the BIVA RXc z-score
    Reed stages 1e6. Reproduced with permission [23]. analysis.
    Table 1
    Details of the studies included in the BIVA RXc z-score analysis.
    Key Author Characteristics N Mean age Gender BMI Tolerance Body Analyser
    The EFG3
    ElectroFluidGraph Vector
    advanced cancer with different disease types.
    Impedance Analyser
    United Kingdom.
    The EFG3
    ElectroFluidGraph Vector
    different disease types. United Kingdom.
    Impedance Analyser
    Caucasian, lung cancer stage IIIB. Italy.
    Systems, Clinton Town-
    Caucasian, lung cancer stage IV, Italy.
    Systems, Clinton Town-
    △ Malecka-Massalska Breast cancer 61 53.88 Female e 95% Athletic Analyzer
    ImpediMed bioimpedance
    Queensland, Australia.
    , Malecka-Massalska Head and neck cancer 34 57.10 Male e 95% Cachexia Analyzer
    ImpediMed bioimpedance
    Queensland, Australia.
    4), Caucasian, lung cancer, locally advanced and
    Systems, Clinton Township,
    MI, USA
    Systems, Clinton Township,
    MI, USA
    > Melecka-Massalska Head and neck cancer 67 67.00 Male 22.9 75% Cachexia Analyzer
    ImpediMed bioimpedance
    Queensland, Australia.
    Analyzer, Biodynamics,
    Shoreline, WA, USA
    Gynaecological cancer. Brazil
    RXc z score data analysed with BIVA software using equations included in the appendix.
    Main findings
    Seven male and three cancer female populations were evaluated. Body composition was classified as normal for the majority (n ¼ 5), followed by cachexia (n ¼ 4) and athletic (n ¼ 1) respectively. Vari-ation in body composition for the studied populations appeared to be related to factors, such as gender, disease type and severity.
    Strengths and uniqueness of this study