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    Contents lists available at ScienceDirect
    Clinica Chimica Acta
    journal homepage:
    A distinguished cancer-screening package containing a DNA sensor and an T aptasensor for early and certain detection of acute lymphoblastic leukemia
    Mohammad Mazloum-Ardakania, , Behnaz Barazesha, Mohammad Mazloum-Ardakanib
    a Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Yazd University, Yazd, Iran
    b Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Yazd University, Yazd, Iran
    DNA biosensor
    Acute lymphoblastic leukemia Carcinoembryonic antigen Biosynthesis 
    A disposable package of biosensors was developed along with the corresponding guidelines for early detection of the acute lymphoblastic leukemia cancer. This proposed cancer-screening package included a DNA sensor and an aptasensor as two main types of biosensors. The biosensors were used simultaneously. This combination of sensors can detect not only the presence of mutant genes but also the biomarkers of cancer. At current work, the combination of sensors were used to detect the presence of BCR-ABL1 as a mutant gene and CEA as a biomarkers of cancer, such a capability makes the package liable for early and certain detection of acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
    To construct both the DNA sensor and the aptasensor, a nanocomposite consisting of electrosynthesis carbon quantum dots and biosynthesized gold nanoparticles was applied. The construction of these biosensors was characterized using four different electrochemical methods including DPV (Differential Pulse Voltammetry), EIS (Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy), CV (Cyclic Voltammetry) and chronoamperometry.
    The peak current of a catechol solution that was used as an electroactive probe on the biosensor was linearly related to the logarithm of the concentrations of the target DNA and the target antigen in the range of 10 pM to 100 μM and 1 pg mL−1 to 0.001 g mL−1 with the detection limits of 1.5 pM and 0.26 pg mL−1 respectively, which are quite good results.
    1. Introduction
    There are more than 100 types of cancer, such as lung cancer, breast cancer, prostate cancer, ovarian cancer, hematologic cancer, and leu-kemia cancer, which some of them are among the deadliest forms of cancers.
    Despite the fact that the early diagnosis of a cancer may increase the chance of successful treatment remarkably, most cancers are detected too late when they have metastasized all over the body. Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is a blood cancer that starts from lymphocyte cells. ALL develops rapidly in days or weeks. It usually spreads or metastasizes throughout human organs (e.g. lymph nodes, spleen, liver, central nervous system, and testicles) fairly quickly. Among the ALL patients, the philadelphia chromosome (BCR-ABL1)-positive (Ph+) acute lymphoblastic leukemia is an uncommon disease, yet it is classified as a high risk cancer, because only 20–30% of (Ph+) children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia are survived [1].